Music is a basic and ancient feature of human socialization. Music is a powerful inducer of emotions , and humans appear to listen to music specifically because of this. It was shown that emotion is a powerful modulator of memory encoding. The following chapter provides an overview over music specific encoding mechanisms in the short- and long-term memory. Hereby music specific features of working memory model as well as the interaction of the acceding auditory pathways, music processing and memory encoding are discussed. Furthermore, we show the overlap and the differences between language and music memory. The impact of music-induced emotions on memory encoding is explored. Finally music’s ability to reveal autobiographic memories is summarized.